Azawakhs - Foundation and Genetics

This page will attempt to explain the origins and genetics of the Azawakh and help you to use the Azawakh Database site and its analytical functions.

When analysing a pedigree one can only take a single calculation into consideration. It is necessary for this to cover inbreeding as well as analysis of the proportion of foundation dogs.

The inbreeding coefficient (inbreeding) is an indicative item, although it only has meaning if one knows over how many generations it has been calculated. One can very well have 0% inbreeding over 3 generations, when ancestors may all be different although all cousins or brothers and sisters coming from the same original dogs. This 0% value will absolutely not therefore reflect the dog's genetic reality. When we compare pedigrees, we must always work out over how many generations the inbreeding coefficient is calculated. In the Database, the coefficient corresponds by default to the number of generations displayed, you can simply click on "inbreeding" to see the coefficient across all of the dog's known generations.

The inbreeding coefficient is a measurement of the proportion of homozygous loci due to the familial relationship between a dog's parents. In other words, it is the percentage of probability that a particular locus is homozygous through the relationship between its parents. Therefore "100%" would mean that the dog is homozygous for every locus. This means that for each gene inherited from its mother, an identical gene is also inherited from its father. This happens when the father and mother are closely related or twins. An inbreeding coefficient of 0% means that no locus is homozygous because the father and mother are not related.

Some values of the inbreeding coefficient:
When a dog is crossed with its brother/sister: 25 %
When a dog is crossed with its father/mother: 25 %
When a dog is crossed with its half-brother/half-sister: 12.5 %
When a dog is crossed with its grandfather/grandmother: 12.5 %
When a dog is crossed with a cousin: 6.25 %

The coefficient should increase by less than 0.25 to 0.5 points per generation. If this increase is higher, a threat of health problems due to inbreeding weighs on the population under consideration. It can take several generations before such problems are obvious, but when they appear, they are very difficult to eliminate from the line. Vigilance is essential since one very quickly loses the benefit of an introduction of "new blood" when  bringing in new blood on old lines during subsequent generations. It is therefore preferable to introduce new blood or lines containing new blood on a regular basis in order to maintain an acceptable level of inbreeding.

The analysis of "Foundation" (foundation)corresponds to the percentage of genetic input from each of the foundation (original) dogs in the genetics of the dog being analysed. A foundation dog is considered to be a dog the origins of which are unknown, or a dog imported from Africa (or living in Africa when several of its descendants have been used in the breeding line).

Foundation dogs are listed in the following table:

So-called “French” line
1970s

So-called “Yugoslav” line"
1970s

Russia
1980s

Toboro II (Parigi) (Mali)
Takadamat (Chaventré) (Mali)
Adignaz (Parigi) (Mali)
Aikar (Parigi) (Mali)
Ahoura (Dr.Gaussens/Roussel) (Mali)
Targui (Foinant) (Burkina Faso)

Ileli (Chaventré) (Mali)
Taikart (Chaventré) (Mali)
Eheouel (Coppé) (Mali)
Reylane (Coppé) (Mali)

It seems that there are no longer any of these descendants in current lines

Gao (Mali)
Lara (Mali)
Darkoye Sidi (Burkina Faso)

Attar (Mali)
Ermad (Mali)

Other later Imports from Africa (Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger) only partially used in reproduction

France

Germany

Other countries

1980 to 1990

B'Kleine Drei
B'Tekewelt
Ejeker
C'Babasch
U'Malilee
Ulm 
C'Oska
Djair
Bold Billy
Bold Birdy
El'Mir 
E'Chipie-Ménaka

Mali
Yaris 
Dazol In Chenan
Akschi
Salome
Aikar Azoul Elkor

 

1990 to 2000

Néférou
P'Ibis

Abarut Ag Tin Akouf
Tainoss
Azol ag Tin Akouf
Dergil
Akaba
Azabor
Taohak
Amanar
Azol ag Manzerou
Inarar
Aybus
Safi
Talatei
Mariam (2)

Taikoussou (Burkina)
Azabor (3) (Burkina)
Gris-Gris (Czech Rep.)
Ajor (Austria)
Azabor (2) (Austria)
Anubi ag Tin-Akof (Switzerland)
Atri ak Mansoufouga (Switzerland)
Djambe (Switzerland)
Aurak-Injakok (Switzerland)
Cadeau (Switzerland)
Speedy (Italy)
Tigidit (Italy)
Agarouf (Italy)
Mariam (USA)
Tinberi (USA)
Hatshepsut (USA)
Inkadewane (USA)

after 2000

T'Ramsès
Taïra
Antak
Bossi
Taussit
Anza Layla

Chaydara
Sheidara
Kela
Sikara
Biyanou
Taikarte
Taytok
Azenfouk
Tagola
Youf

Django (Italy)
Ultra-Violet (Italy)
Alpha (Italy)
Blondy (Italy)
Melusina (Italy)
Aisinda (USA)
Tazrayt (USA)
Tiraout (USA)
Tamgak (USA)
Aisinda (USA)
Tamanayt (USA)
Arakaou (USA)
Asaliim (USA) †
Tamahan (USA)

- The higher the % of a foundation dog in a pedigree with many generations, the greater the homozygocity on the genes that it has transmitted (good and bad). 
- The lower the number of foundation dogs over several generations, the lower the genetic diversity and genetic vigour in the dog's genotype.
Examples of high inbreeding
Pedigree 1 - 1995
Total inbreeding: 35 %

Foundation dogs

 

Genetic
input

Toboro II
Takadamat
Adignaz
Gao
Darkoye Sidi
Lara 
Aikar 
Ahoura 
Targui

23.40% 
20.30% 
16.00% 
10.90% 
10.90% 
7.81% 
6.64% 
3.12% 
0.78%

Pedigree 2 - 1996
Total inbreeding: 21.8 %

Foundation dogs

Genetic
input

Toboro II 
Gao 
Takadamat 
Adignaz 
Lara 
Darkoye Sidi 
Aikar 
Ahoura 
Targui

22.70% 
16.40%
 
14.10%
 
12.90% 
10.20% 
9.38% 
5.86% 
4.69% 
3.91%

- In pedigree 1, the inbreeding is such that it greatly exceeds a brother/sister or father/daughter mating. The 3 foundation dogs at the head of the list represent 60% of the dog's genetic capital. The risks of genetic defects and health or temperament problems.
- Pedigree 2 is almost equivalent to a brother/sister mating.
- Pedigree 3 is relatively similar to 2 with a higher % for Toboro II. 
Remark : These pedigrees are the result of 20 years or more of inbreeding on the same dogs.

Pedigree 3 - 2003
Total inbreeding: 18.3 %

Foundation dogs

Genetic
input

Toboro II 
Gao 
Adignaz 
Takadamat 
Lara 
Darkoye Sidi 
Ahoura 
Aikar 
Targui

24.3% 
15.5% 
13.5% 
12.5% 
8.89% 
8.4% 
6.05% 
5.76% 
5.08%

- Pedigree 4 is a half-brother / half-sister litter were both parents are already inbred on C'Babasch who is 36% of the genetics here, so that the inbreeding is over 20%, much higher than a half brother-sister mating.

Pedigree 4 - 2007
Total inbreeding: 20.9 %

Foundation dogs

Genetic
input

C'Babasch 
Takadamat 

Toboro II 
Gao 
B'Tekewelt 
Ejeker 
Adignaz
 
Darkoye Sidi 
Lara 
Targui 
Aikar 
Ahoura 

36.7% 
9.96% 
9.38% 
8.84% 
7.42% 

7.42% 
6.59% 
5.96% 
4.15% 
1.56% 
1.22% 
0.781%

Litters presenting genetic defects

Pedigree 5 - France
Total inbreeding: 20.4 %

Foundation dogs

Genetic
input

Toboro II
Takadamat
Adignaz

Targui 
Bold Billy
Gao
Ahoura
Darkoye Sidi
Aikar
C'Babasch
Lara
B'Tekewelt
Ejeker

27.30% 
15.20% 
14.00% 
9.38% 
6.25% 
5.96% 
4.69% 
4.10% 
4.00% 
3.12% 
2.83% 
1.56% 
1.56%

Pedigree 6 - France
Total inbreeding: 16.5%

Foundation dogs

Genetic
input

Toboro II
Takadamat
Adignaz
Gao
Targui
C'Babasch
B'Tekewelt
Ejeker
Darkoye Sidi
Ahoura
Lara
Aikar

23.00% 
14.10% 
12.10% 
9.77% 
7.81% 
6.25% 
6.25% 
6.25% 
3.91% 
3.91% 
3.52% 
3.12%

In these examples, it is evident that the genetic percentage with regard to Toboro II is very high. In pedigree 5, it is shown 7 times in the father's origins and 17 times in its mother's origins, and over 9 generations! In addition, the 3 most represented foundation dogs accumulate 50% or more of the genetic capital. Across 9 generations, all the dogs are descended from only 12 or 13 dogs of different origins! One cannot deduce from such analyses that Toboro II is more to blame for genetic problems than the other ancestors, although the fact of having, many times over, used the same dogs in the pedigrees of both parents can only increase the risk seeing the appearance of recessive defects carried by them, which had until then been contained.
Examples in dogs produced from matings with a new import and a half-import

Pedigree 7 - France 2003
Total inbreeding: 0 %

Foundation dogs

Genetic
input

Biyanou (recent import)
Toboro II
Takadamat

Adignaz
Bold Billy
Targui
C'Babasch
Darkoye Sidi
Aikar
Ahoura
B'Tekewelt
Ejeker
Lara
Gao

50.00% 
12.30%
 
7.03% 
6.45% 
6.25% 
3.91% 
3.12% 
1.95% 
1.95% 
1.95% 
1.56% 
1.56% 
0.97% 
0.97%

Pedigree 8 - France 1995
Total inbreeding: 0 %

Foundation dogs

Genetic
input

E'Chipie Menaka (recent import)
Toboro II
Takadamat
Adignaz
Targui
Ahoura 
Aikar
Darkoye Sidi
Lara
Gao

50.00% 
17.20% 
9.38%
 
8.59% 
6.25% 
3.12% 
2.34% 
1.56% 
0.78% 
0.78%

It is however still necessary to juxtapose these results to the inbreeding coefficients and to the number of known generations. For a foundation dog representing 50% (pedigrees 7 and 8), when the inbreeding coefficient is 0%, means that we have here a mating with a new import. This dog and its unknown ancestors represent 50% of the genetic capital, all the rest has been transmitted by the other parent. There is no inbreeding but an increase in genetic diversity associated with a greater genetic vigour.

This pedigree, with a low inbreeding coefficient, is the result of 2 half-imports. The imports represent 50% new blood, considerably bringing down the % of the original dogs in the two French and Yugoslav lines.

Pedigree 9 - France 2002
Total inbreeding: 3.09 %

Foundation dogs

Genetic
input

Speedy (recent import) 
Amanar 
(recent import) 
Toboro II
Takadamat
Adignaz
Targui
Gao
C'Babasch
Lara
Ahoura
Darkoye Sidi
Aikar
B'Tekewelt
Ejeker

25.00% 
25.00% 
12.90%
 
7.03%
 
6.45% 
4.69% 
4.10% 
3.12% 
2.54% 
2.34% 
1.95% 
1.76% 
1.56% 
1.56%

Examples in dogs produced from matings with new imports over several generations

Pedigree 10 - Austria 2002
Total inbreeding: 1.77 %

Foundation dogs

Genetic
input

Salome 
Aikar Azoul Elkor 
Ajor Ag Tinakouf 

C'Babasch 
Gao 
Toboro II 
Akschi 
B'Tekewelt 
Ejeker 
Adignaz 
Takadamat 
Lara 
Targui 
Darkoye Sidi 
Ahoura 
Aikar

12.50% 
12.50% 
12.50% 

10.90% 
8.11% 
7.81% 
6.25% 
5.47% 
5.47% 
3.61% 
3.52% 
3.42% 
3.12% 
2.15% 
1.56% 
1.07%

Pedigree 11 - USA 2003
Total inbreeding: 0 %

Foundation dogs

Genetic
input

Taytok 
Gao 
Taikoussou 
Azabor (3) 
Atri ak Mansoufouga 
Toboro II 
Lara 
C'Babasch 
Targui 
Takadamat 
Darkoye Sidi 
Adignaz 
B'Tekewelt 
Ejeker 
Ahoura
Aikar

50.00% 
7.62% 
6.25% 
6.25% 
6.25% 
4.49% 
3.52% 
3.12% 
2.34% 
2.34% 
2.15% 
1.76% 
1.56% 
1.56% 
0.39% 
0.39%

Here, four new dogs in the origins (in 3rd and 4th generations for pedigree 10) have made it possible to bring the inbreeding coefficients down to insignificant levels with a balanced distribution of foundation dogs. We also therefore have pedigrees that are not inbred.

Pedigree 12 - Germany
Total inbreeding: 4.21 %

Foundation dogs

Genetic
input

Amanar 
Dazol In Chenan 
Yaris 

Gao 
Toboro II 
Takadamat 
Ahoura 
C'Babasch 
Lara 
Adignaz 
Aikar 
B'Tekewelt 
Ejeker 
Darkoye Sidi 
Targui

25.00% 
18.80% 
18.80% 

9.28% 
5.27% 
3.52% 
3.52% 
3.12% 
3.03% 
2.44% 
2.05% 
1.56% 
1,56% 
1.37% 
0.78%

Pedigree 13 - USA 2000
Total inbreeding: 0 %

Foundation dogs

Genetic
input

Inkadewane 
Père Alak/Tagalas 

C'Babasch 
Dazol In Chenan 
Yaris 

B'Tekewelt 
Ejeker

25.00% 
25.00% 
12.50% 
12.50% 
12.50%
 
6.25% 
6.25%

Here, we can see that the foundation dogs of the French and Yugoslav lines are absent. This would, for example, be a good out-cross pedigree (outside of inbreeding) to be used for mating with a classic French pedigree.

It is possible to analyse a mating envisaged between two dogs that are present in the Database. This helps to reinforce or rethink a planned litter. All one needs to do is display the pedigree (of a bitch, for example) and then add a partner using the “test mate” function. A new pedigree is then displayed showing half of the generations as blanks. A partner of the opposite sex can then be inserted (dog 2) by clicking on "add" to select the chosen partner. The pedigree for the planned litter is then created. All one then has to do, as is usual, is to consult the genetic analyses of such a mating.

Other functions in the database:

"Offspring": all offspring from this dog, listed by partner.
"Reverse": a sort of reversed pedigree showing all the offspring of a dog displayed in the browser.
"Photos": photos of the dog if available.

Corine Lundqvist
English Translation by Susan Bamford